Our lab uses medicinal chemistry approaches to target drug-resistant pathogens such as HIV and HCV, flaviviruses, and cancers. Drug resistance is a major limitation in the treatment of pathogenic infections and cancers. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance and developing strategies to avoid resistance could lead to more effective therapies against drug resistant pathogens. Under the leadership of Prof.
Our lab is also interested in using fragment-based drug design FBDD to discover inhibitors against dengue, zika and other Flavivirus proteases. Tweets by UMass Medical. Campus Map pdf. His greatest peril arose from the progress of the Uzbeks, a tribe of ferocious Tartars, now swarming from their native hive, and seeking new settlements in the south. Their leader Shaibek had swept the posterity of Timur from Transoxiana and Khorasan, and in his progress towards the Indus had captured Candahar and threatened Cabul. Had he been able to march at once on that capital, he would probably have extinguished for ever the hopes of Baber, but he was recalled from these conquests by the hostility of Ismael Shah, the powerful chief of the tribe which had recently seized the throne of Persia, and established the dynasty of the Sophis.
The Uzbek chief was routed and slain, and Baber seized the opportunity of again occupying Samarcand, from which he was again expelled in the course of a few months.
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To compensate for this disappointment, he turned his attention to India, where the imbecility of the emperor of Delhi presented a temptation too strong to be resisted by a descendant of Timur. His first irruption was in the year , and it was followed by two others, in five years, though with partial success. In he resumed this ambitious project, and overran the Punjab, where he was joined by Alla-ood-deen, the brother of the emperor, with Dowlut Khan, and other officers, who had been alienated from him by his constant oppressions.
But Baber, after having advanced as far as Sirhind, was obliged to return across the Indus, to repel an invasion from the north, and Dowlut Khan, on his departure, deserted his standard and took possession of the Punjab. Alla-ood-deen, who had been left in charge of the province, fled to Cabul, and was immediately sent back to India by Baber, with a well-appointed. Baber now advanced on his fifth and last expedition with an army not exceeding 12, men, but they were all experienced veterans.
The emperor, Ibrahim Lodi, advanced to meet him with an army generally estimated at ,, and a thousand elephants. The destiny of India was decided on the field of Paniput. The engagement lasted from sunrise to sunset, and resulted in the total defeat of the imperial army, and the death of the emperor, and 15, of his troops.
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Delhi opened her gates to the victor in May, , and Baber vaulted into the vacant throne, and, as a token of his success, sent gifts from the treasury to the most celebrated Mahomedan shrines in Asia. But Delhi had long ceased to be the capital and the mistress of India. In the southern extremity of Hindostan, the great Hindoo monarch of Beejuynugur claimed the allegiance of the various native chiefs who had never submitted to the Mahomedan yoke. Farther to the north lay the territories of the five kings of Beejapore, Ahmednugur, Golconda, Beder, and Berar, who were established on the dissolution of the Bahminy kingdom.
The province of Gujerat was governed by a wild youth, who was ambitious of trying conclusions with the Mogul in the field. Rana Sunga, the most powerful prince of his race, was paramount in Rajpootana. Still nearer Delhi, an independent prince held his court at Jounpore, and supported it from the revenues of Oude.
The victory of Baber, therefore, only gave him the command of the districts to the north-west of Delhi, and a narrow tract of land, stretching along the. Jumna to Agra. He had India yet to conquer, but his generals shrunk from the task, and entreated him to return to the cooler and more genial climate of Afghanistan, where they might enjoy the booty they had acquired at Delhi and Agra. But Baber had crossed the Indus, not simply to plunder provinces, but to found an empire, and he announced his unalterable resolution to continue in India, and pursue his career; at the same time, however, he granted permission to all those to return who preferred ease to glory.
In the course of four months after the battle of Paniput, all the country held by Ibrahim Lodi had been secured, and the revolted kingdom of Jounpore brought under subjection. But a more formidable enemy now appeared in the field. Rana Sunga, the Rajpoot prince of Chittore, and at this time the most powerful of all the sovereigns north of the Nerbudda, elated by a recent triumph over the king of Malwa, espoused the cause of the dethroned dynasty of Delhi. All the princes of Rajpootana ranged themselves under his banner, and he advanced with , men to drive Baber back across the Indus.
The first conflict took place at Futtehpore Sikri, where the advanced guard of the Moguls was totally routed by the Rajpoots. Accustomed as he had been to dangers for thirty years, this extraordinary peril staggered him, but he never despaired. He states in his memoirs that in this emergency he repented of his sins, and determined to reform his life; that he foreswore the use of wine, and broke up his gold and silver cups, and distributed their value among the poor. He resolved to allow his beard to grow like a true Musulman, and promised, if God gave him the victory, to remit the stamp tax to the faithful.
Animated by his example, his generals took an oath on the Koran to conquer or to die. In this fever of enthusiasm Baber led them against the enemy, and by the aid of his efficient artillery obtained a signal victory, which completely broke the power of Chittore. He celebrated his success by constructing a pyramid of the heads of the slain, and assuming the title of Ghazee, or champion of the faith. The next year Baber attacked Chunderee, held by Medni Roy, whose history, in connection with the kingdoms of Guzerat and Malwa has been already related.
Finding his position untenable, he and his Rajpoots devoted themselves to death with the usual ceremonies, and rushed with frenzy on the Mogul swords. Those who survived the onset put themselves to death. In the following year, Baber extended his authority over Oude and south Behar. But his constitution, which had been gradually impaired by long indulgence, was worn out by these severe exertions in an uncongenial climate. So active had been his life, that for thirty-eight years he had never kept the feast of the Ramzan twice in the same place.
He died at Agra in , at the age of fifty, and his remains were conveyed to Cabul and interred in a beautiful spot which he had himself selected for his tomb. The simple and chaste monument raised over his grave continued to attract admiration three centuries after his death. Among the Mahomedan princes of India, no monarch is held in higher estimation than Baber. His career exhibited that romantic spirit of adventure of which nations are always proud.
His personal courage bordered on rashness; his activity was almost fabulous. While labouring under a wasting disease he rode a hundred and sixty miles in two days, and swam across the Ganges. He was, however, rather a valiant soldier than a great general, and he lost nearly as many battles as he won; but he never lost heart, and was as buoyant after a defeat as after a victory. Amidst all the bustle of war, he found time for the cultivation of. The little leisure he enjoyed from the labours of the field, he devoted to the construction of aqueducts, reservoirs, and other works of public utility.
There is no Indian prince with whose individual character we are so familiar, and this is owing to his own vivid delineation of it in the volume of personal memoirs he compiled, in which he records his transgressions with so much candour, and his repentance with so much sincerity, and recounts his friendships with so much cordiality, that in spite of all his failings he becomes an object of personal esteem. Humayoon succeeded his father at the close of , but the first incident in his reign exhibited that easiness of disposition to which his subsequent misfortunes were chiefly to be attributed.
His brother, Kamran, the governor of Cabul and Candahar, hesitated to acknowledge his authority, and Humayoon, not only consented to resign these provinces to him, but added the Punjab also. In the third year of his reign, Humayoon became involved in hostilities with Bahadoor Shah.
This impetuous prince who ascended the throne at the age of twenty, was incessantly engaged in aggressive wars during the eleven years of his reign. He had subjugated the independent kingdom of Malwa, and annexed it to his own dominions. He had compelled the kings of Ahmednugur and Beder to do him personal homage. He had added the ancient and venerable city of Oojein to his conquests, and sacked the city of Chittore, in the defence of which 32, Rajpoots are said to have fallen.
Humayoon demanded the surrender of a fugitive conspirator, which was haughtily refused, on which he marched at once into the country. Bahadoor Shah had planted his army in an entrenched camp at Mandishore, trusting to his fine artillery, manned by Portuguese gunners and commanded by Roomy Khan, originally a Turkish slave, but now the first engineer officer in India. Humayoon besieged the camp for two months, cut off its supplies, and reduced the king to such straits, that he was obliged to fly, and eventually to take refuge in Diu, the most remote harbour in the peninsula of Guzerat.
Humayoon immediately overran the province, and proceeded against the fortress of Chumpanere, in which the accumulated wealth of the dynasty was deposited. With only three hundred select troops, he climbed up the perpendicular rock on which it was built by means of steel spikes, and mastered it by an exhibition of heroism which rivalled the exploits of his father. The gallantry of his officers and soldiers was rewarded with as much gold and silver as they could heap on their shields. But his further progress was arrested by the necessity of returning to Agra, to arrest the progress of Shere Khan.
On his retirement, Bahadoor Shah again took the field and regained his kingdom as rapidly as he had lost it; but he did not long enjoy it. While at Diu, he had negotiated with the Portuguese for three hundred Europeans to assist him in recovering his kingdom, and in return granted them permission to establish a factory at that port. They began immediately to surround it with a wall, the rudiments of a fortification, and brought up a fleet to protect the progress of the work.
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Bahadoor Shah had all the native horror of European intrusion, and was determined to prevent the completion of the work. An affray ensued in which the king lost his life, by accident, according to the Portuguese historians, by treachery, if we are to believe the Mahomedans. Shere Khan, who now appears on the scene, was one of the most distinguished characters in the annals of Mahomedan India.
He was an Afghan of noble birth, of the tribe of Soor, which claimed affinity with the kings of Ghore.
His father held the rank of a commander of , and the jaygeer of Sasseram, in Behar, where Shere Khan was born. At an early age he quitted his home in disgust, and enlisted as a private soldier under the king of Jounpore, but at the same time endeavoured to store his mind with knowledge, and prepare himself by study for future eminence. A long series of adventures in which he was engaged on his own account for several years, ended in the occupation of Behar and the siege of Gour, the capital of Bengal.
Humayoon was recalled from Guzerat by the tidings of his alarming progress, and moved down to oppose him with a large army, but was detained six months besieging Chunar, though it was assaulted by the floating batteries of Roomy Khan, whom Humayoon had allured to his service after the defeat of Bahadoor Shah. During this protracted siege Shere Khan captured Gour, conquered Bengal, and sent the king flying for shelter to the imperial camp.
As Humayoon entered Bengal, Shere Khan retired to the hilly and inaccessible region of the south-west, and deposited his family and treasures in the fortress of Rhotas. The emperor took up his residence in Gour, then in the zenith of its grandeur, and on the eve of its decay.
When the rains set in, the delta of the Ganges became a sheet of water, and the great army of Humayoon was reduced by disease and desertions.
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He was constrained to retreat with his dispirited troops towards the capital, where his brothers were beginning to take advantage of his difficulties and to intrigue for the throne. At a time when every moment was precious, Humayoon wasted two months. Before it was completed, he was attacked and completely defeated by his rival, who now assumed the title of Shere Shah, and openly aspired to the empire.
Humayoon at length reached Agra, and extinguished the hostile schemes of his brothers. Eight months were passed in assembling an army for the great struggle with his formidable rival, who employed this period in subjugating and organizing Bengal. The two armies met in the neighbourhood of Cunouj, and Humayoon experienced a second and more fatal defeat. He fled from the field of battle to Agra, pursued by Shere Shah, and had barely time to remove his family to Delhi.
From thence he was driven to Lahore, where his brother, instead of affording him an asylum, hastened to make his peace with the victim, and was allowed to retire to his territories beyond the Indus.