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Finally I would like to express my sincere gratitude and affection to the people who saw me through this challenge and were there when I needed them: my parents, my good friend Poppi Fotiadou, but most of all my partner Michael. Unless otherwise stated, references to the extant plays are to the Loeb editions. Tragic fragments, except those of Euripides, are cited from Radt's Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta ; vol.

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Ill for Aischylos, vol. IV for Sophokles. For Euripides' fragments the text referred to is A. Nauck's Tragicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, vol.

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Collard's, J. Cropp's and K. Lee's Euripides: Selected Fragmentary Plays, vol. The abbreviations of the names of periodicals and series follow those of the American Journal of Archaeology 95 I declare that the work in this dissertation was carried out in accordance with the Regulations of the University of Bristol. The work is original except where indicated by special reference in the text and no part of the dissertation has been submitted for any other degree. Any views expressed in the dissertation are those of the author and in no way represent those of the University of Bristol. The dissertation has not been presented to any other University for examination either in the United Kingdom or overseas.

The Attalid ascent to power 2. Attalid foreign policy Gauls Seleukids Macedonians Rome 3. The frieze 52 2. The iconographic tradition of the myth 4. The frieze 2. Old myth in a new guise - the Attalid relation to their mythical past 3. Providence, destiny, and the imagery of the altar 4. Inscription "agatha" 5. Which Eumenes? This interest in the monument was recently revived following excavation work at the site in the years between The results of this intense scientific investigation are expected to appear shortly and are mainly concerned with the architectural reconstruction of the monument and the dating of the pottery material unearthed from the altar's foundation.

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The work has several aims. First, to provide for the first time in English all the relevant information concerning the altar, from the early excavations and publication to the latest research and forthcoming works Chapter 1 , summaries of the current literature on the frieze's reconstruction and stylistic analysis Chapters Second, it aims to provide the first updated and detailed description of the relief panels Catalogue, vol.

I , since the original publication in the Altertumer von Pergamon, accompanied by rich photographic material vol. Third, the thesis advances several new theories on the reconstruction and interpretation of the sculpted friezes using a combination of iconographic, literary, and historical evidence Chapters Finally, it makes the first attempt to study the artist's technique as an example of Hellenistic aesthetics, and the way the imagery was used by the Attalids to project their own image of self-glorification by a careful study of the political background, the religious context of the monument, its philosophical overtones and artistic strategies Chapter 5.

An evaluation of these theories will be reserved for later in the work, after a more detailed presentation of the monument and its sculptures has been made. Ancient Sources, Discovery, Excavations, Publication Only a few relevant accounts of the altar survive from ancient times and even these are not always clear. The oldest reference to the altar probably appears in John's Book of Revelation.

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Despite the cryptic nature of John's statement, modem scholars tend to identify Satan's throne with the Great Altar, not only because of its throne-like plan but also because of the many serpent-legged giants that would have induced Christians to associate them with Satan. In the time of Pausanias the Great Altar was the only monument in the city that could fit this description. Ampelius' Liber Memorialis author dated ca. Unlike the aforementioned references, here the description is unambiguous. He immediately notified E. Curtius, the Director of the Antiquarium, urging him to organise an!

Datedto 1st century AD; 2. Brandes, "Apokalyptisches in Pergamon" Byzantinoslavia 47 9; H.

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Gedenkschrift fur Wolfgang Schindler eds. Rosier, V. StUrmer Berlin: Mann Collins "Pergamon in early Christian literature", Pergamon: The citadel , esp. Homblower, A. The monument was excavated during the years under the auspices of the Berlin Museum. The results of the findings and a restoration plan were presented by R. Bohn, the excavation architect, in the preliminary reports published in and Schrammen in the series Altertumer von Pergamon in Bohn's records together with 0.

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Puchstein's studies of the Gigantomachy frieze's arrangement , and H. Schrader's investigations of the sacrificial altar and the Telephos frieze - including its architectural integration into the altar structure - were the basis for the first museum reconstructions of the monument. Archaeological work at the altar's foundations between the years , undertaken by W. Radt and G. At the time of this thesis' preparation the conclusive results of the latest excavations had not been published. The publication, by de Luca and Radt, of the ceramic material is expected to appear in the series Pergamenische Forschungen.

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The work is also expected to contain a comprehensive bibliography for the altar along with summaries of content. Furthermore, a publication by M. Klinkott and V.

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  • NIKE - Definition and synonyms of Nike in the German dictionary;
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Kastner on the architecture and reconstruction of the Great Altar is expected to appear in the series Altertumer von Pergamon, which will also include full drawing and documenting of the site. The restoration of the reliefs of the Telephos frieze during and the exhibition catalogues published in connection with this have produced a number of new findings.

Schraudolph published a preliminary report of these in Bohn, "Die Ausgrabungen zu Pergamon und ihre Ergebnisse. Schrammen, "Der grosse Altar.

Der obere Markt" Altertumer von Pergamon vol. For the letter to Curtius see E.

Schulte Der Pergamonaltar. Entdeckt, beschrieben und gezeichnet von Carl Humann. For a summary of the history of the excavation campaigns see: C. Humann "Geschichte der Untersuchung. Dreyfus, E. For individual works on the Gigantomachy and Telephos friezes see respectively Chapters 3 and 4. For the preliminary comments see E. Koester, Pergamon. Citadel of the gods. Archaeological record, literary description and religious development.

For the exhibition catalogues see: R. Dreyfus and E. San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco 3 results of the excavations have been published in the form of articles which will be, where appropriate, cited accordingly.