The purpose of this section is to provide you with an overview of special needs students and the way to effectively meet their individual needs within your classroom. As the general education classroom teacher, recognize the challenges that your special needs students might face—difficulties in reading, writing, mathematics, or other school subjects.
Teaching Students with Special Needs
Also watch for the following characteristics:. If you notice these characteristics in an individual, notify the appropriate personnel in your building, such as the special education consultant or school counselor, for further testing, observation, and possible diagnosis. IDEA requires that a multidisciplinary team determine whether or not the student actually has a disability. The team includes representatives from the school—the counselor, social worker, school psychologist, and an administrator—the student's parents or guardians, the special education teacher, and at least one general education teacher.
Each member of the team contributes insight into the student's physical, academic, and social development through formal tests, observations, interviews, checklists, and questionnaires. If it is determined that the student qualifies for assistance, the multidisciplinary team then develops the Individual Education Program IEP. Your involvement is important in deciding the educational outcomes and placement for the student, including setting, instructional methods, accommodations, and curriculum.
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Once the IEP is developed, the document becomes law and classroom teachers must follow it. Therefore, teachers must be active participants in all IEP meetings. The next section guides you in the development of accommodations and modifications. Some students are classified as special education students, while others do not qualify for services. Most teachers find this wide variety challenging. The components of effective instructional design include accommodations and modifications, goals for instruction, scaffolding learning, and grouping students. Students with special needs will have required modifications and accommodations written into their IEPs.
Since regular education teachers often know students best, their input plays a significant role in designing programs to meet individual needs. As we discussed, accommodations to facilitate academic success are an important part of a comprehensive plan for the student with special needs. An accommodation should also enhance rather than detract from the learning of other students in the room and must be feasible for you to implement.
Some accommodations are easier to implement than others, such as providing specific praise and encouragement. Procedures and routines are also fairly easy to apply within the classroom setting. Other adaptations, such as individualizing instruction and using alternative materials, can be harder to implement Schumm, Adapting Reading and Math Materials for the Inclusive Classroom.
Setting instructional goals allows you to plan the path for student learning and provide a tool for measurement. The ultimate goal is to prepare all students to read and write independently. Ask yourself:. Scaffolding is the manipulating of instruction so that a student is supported while being challenged to develop a new skill Bos and Vaughn, Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning and Behavioral Problems.
Teachers can scaffold instruction to meet the needs of students by manipulating the task, presentation, group size, or materials.
Once the child is able to master a more difficult concept, the mediator is removed. With the use of scaffolding, you provide your students with an abundance of support at the beginning of a task and then gradually reduce your role.
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As you monitor and note achievement, remove the current scaffolding and guide the student to the next level with a new form of scaffolding in place. It is often difficult for classroom teachers to find time to effectively monitor and provide ongoing feedback to students with special needs. Using alternative teaching methods and styles is essential to accommodate diversity. Small groups of no more than six students can provide students with the ongoing feedback that they require.
It is helpful to have detailed instructions and goals for the students to accomplish, and you will need to delegate roles to the students and provide ongoing monitoring.
Special education standards
In a partnership, students alternate between being the tutor and the tutee. Cross-aged tutoring is the process of using a partner from a different grade level to assist a student in a reading lesson.
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An admired older peer can serve as a role model, or the special needs student can work with a younger child. Reading teachers must use a balanced approach when teaching students with special needs. S tudents must be able to recognize the sounds, or phonology, of language in order to understand how speech is related to print. Children with special needs require assistance in learning to develop phonological awareness Fletcher and Lyon, What's Gone Wrong in America's Classrooms.
Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs, 11th Edition
The majority of students with special needs also fail to master the concept of phonemic awareness. Phonemic awareness is an understanding that words and syllables are composed of a sequence of elementary speech sounds. This understanding is essential to learning to read an alphabetic language. Model and demonstrate how to break words into onset, rime, and syllables. Also model how to break short sentences into individual words.
How to Adapt Your Teaching Strategies to Student Needs | Reading Rockets
This skill must be taught in the first years of school to further the students' reading progress and keep them from falling behind Fletcher and Lyon, What's Gone Wrong in America's Classrooms. Sort order. Jun 24, E. Decent book. Very informative and while it lacks some interest and can seem dull for what seems like pages at a time which can make it difficult once you get through the those it did get better.
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